Exploring the Impact of Ozempic on Fertility: What You Need to Know

Exploring the Impact of Ozempic on Fertility: What You Need to Know

In recent years, the pharmaceutical world has witnessed significant advancements in the treatment of diabetes. Among these breakthroughs is Ozempic, a medication designed to manage type 2 diabetes effectively. However, as with any medication, it's crucial to understand its potential effects, especially when it comes to aspects as significant as fertility. 

Understanding Ozempic

Ozempic, scientifically known as semaglutide, belongs to a class of drugs called glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor agonists. It works by mimicking the effects of a hormone called GLP-1, which is naturally produced in the body. GLP-1 helps regulate blood sugar levels by stimulating insulin release, inhibiting glucagon secretion (a hormone that raises blood sugar), and delaying gastric emptying, which slows down the absorption of glucose from the gut.1


How Ozempic Works

When someone with type 2 diabetes takes Ozempic, it activates the GLP-1 receptors, leading to several beneficial effects:

- Increased insulin secretion from the pancreas in response to elevated blood sugar levels.

- Decreased glucagon secretion, which reduces the liver's production of glucose.

- Slowed emptying of the stomach, helping to control postprandial (after-meal) blood sugar spikes.

- Promotion of satiety, which can aid in weight management, a significant concern for many individuals with type 2 diabetes.

Ozempic Implications for Fertility

While Ozempic primarily targets blood sugar regulation, some studies have suggested potential effects on reproductive health, particularly in women.


  • Impact on hormones

Some women taking Ozempic may experience changes in their menstrual cycles, including irregular periods or changes in menstrual flow. While GLP-1 antagonists focus primarily on blood sugar regulation and weight control, they may indirectly influence ovarian function, potentially impacting ovulation and menstrual regularity.

Most of the fertility research looking at GLP-1 receptor antagonists focuses on treating those with PCOS. Studies show that it positively influences ovarian function in these women, as hyperinsulinemia is responsible for promoting excess androgens. These medications can also promote regular menstruation in women with PCOS who otherwise struggle. 2,3

While there is limited evidence to suggest a causal link, GLP-1 receptor antagonists may help women with obesity, hyperinsulinemia, and insulin resistance to improve their odds of falling pregnant. 


  • Weight and Fertility 

Obesity or increased weight can contribute to an increased likelihood of fertility issues in women. It is suggested obesity elevates bodily oestrogens, which can lead to further hormonal imbalances and even culminate in reproductive problems. Ozempic may aid in hormonal regulation by inducing weight loss. Those with obesity often have higher than average insulin and blood glucose levels as well, to which ozempic may pose further benefits. 4


  • Sporadic Pregnancy

More recently, there have been sporadic reports of women falling pregnant when on Ozempic despite being on birth control or having previously experienced fertility difficulties or miscarriage. While a direct causal link is yet to be fully established, there are a few theories about why this might be happening, such as the effects of weight loss on hormonal balance or the way ozempic potentially interact with oral contraceptives.

Though research is limited, it is suggested that GLP-1 antagonists might interfere with the absorption of oral contraceptives by slowing gastric emptying. This could occur due to the medication's influence on gastric emptying and digestive processes. 

Evidence has been provided that different GLP-1 antagonist can lower the effectiveness of oral contraceptives, and warning labels are present on the package insert. Studies have failed to confirm the same effects for ozempic 5


Ozempic is a valuable tool in the management of type 2 diabetes, offering benefits beyond blood sugar control, such as weight management and cardiovascular risk reduction. However, like any medication, it's essential to be aware of potential side effects and implications, especially concerning fertility. 

This information is not a substitute for professional medical advice, diagnosis, or treatment. If you have specific questions or concerns about your health or medication regimen, please consult a qualified healthcare provider.



  1. Nadkarni, P., Chepurny, O. G., & Holz, G. G. (2014). Regulation of glucose homeostasis by GLP-1. Progress in molecular biology and translational science, 121, 23–65. https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-12-800101-1.00002-8
  2. Bhathena R. K. (2011). Insulin resistance and the long-term consequences of polycystic ovary syndrome. Journal of obstetrics and gynaecology : the journal of the Institute of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, 31(2), 105–110. https://doi.org/10.3109/01443615.2010.539722
  3. Lamos, E. M., Malek, R., & Davis, S. N. (2017). GLP-1 receptor agonists in the treatment of polycystic ovary syndrome. Expert review of clinical pharmacology, 10(4), 401–408. https://doi.org/10.1080/17512433.2017.1292125
  4. Silvestris, E., de Pergola, G., Rosania, R., & Loverro, G. (2018). Obesity as disruptor of the female fertility. Reproductive biology and endocrinology : RB&E, 16(1), 22. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12958-018-0336-z
  5. Kapitza, C., Nosek, L., Jensen, L., Hartvig, H., Jensen, C. B., & Flint, A. (2015). Semaglutide, a once-weekly human GLP-1 analog, does not reduce the bioavailability of the combined oral contraceptive, ethinylestradiol/levonorgestrel. Journal of clinical pharmacology, 55(5), 497–504. https://doi.org/10.1002/jcph.443